For example classical musician traditionally create interest by their manipulation of keys. So we listen to journey of how a piece of music modulates to a distant key and then return back to the home key.
Prior to the 12 tone technique, there was no way atonal music could mimic that departure and return. In his "freely atonal" phase of his career prior to the development of 12 tone technique, he simply just harmonised the melody with the same motive of the theme but paid no attention to whether it's part of the same key or not.
However he believed that by developing the 12 tone row. Schoenberg realised that he could transposed (aka shift the tone row up or down the scale), flip he tone row upside down (called inversion) or back to front (called retrograde) and a combination of all 3 (aka retrograde inversion + transposition).
By manipulating the tone row, Schoenberg believed that he was able to mimic the same effect of a tonal music changing keys. That's how he managed to write atonal music in sonata form, a form that traditionally about how a composer was able to modulate from one key to another and then back again. So instead of changing one key to another, Schoenberg would invert or retrograde or transposed the tone row.
So the question to anyone who listen to serial 12 tone technique music
Does anyone actually hear without looking at the score the manipulation of the tone row? Do you guys actually perceived for example an inversion of a tone row to have a different mood to the original theme?
When the piece of music transits back to the original tone row, do you hear the return of the original theme of the composition?
Or is this actually just an amorphous singular mood from start to finish and the only changes in mood that you perceived is due to the manipulation of the timbre, dynamics, rhythm rather than the melody/harmony.
The question is essentially, does Schoenberg succeed in creating a system that mimics the departure and return of tonal music?
(by the way, Greenberg answer is actually a no but he believed that Schoenberg was a great composer because he was able to used phrase structure, timbre dynamics etc to mimic the departure and return that was present in tonal music)