1. Putting ballast on ships.
2. Putting coal on ships.
Please know that my first message, in answer to John (Shearer), was to explain how I think that ballast was put on and removed from ships.
Ships taking coal out of the Tyne to London, did not need stone ballast, as the coal acted as ballast, but they would have needed to take on ballast in London, for the return journey.
Ships taking light cargo from the Tyne, might have needed stone or sand ballast, depending on the weight of the cargo.
The ballast hill at Hebburn was created with ballast from local ships returning, or foreign ships wishing to take on coal, etc.
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