Then cable operated brakes came along and that is today’s norm..
The actual brake itself has undergone many changes. Overhead pull to side pull. Umpteen variations.
The material in the shoes far better the wheel rims developed to give better stopping power.
There will alway be Rim brakes as they are lighter than a Disc setup and the Perfectionists still stick to Rim brakes.
Most Disc brake systems are hydraulic but there are cable operated one’s.
Rim brakes normally cable operated but there has been Hydraulic operated one’s.
Not as yet seen any electronically operated ones but it my well happened as top end bikes now have the gears changing done electronically. At very high tech.
Yesterday in Harrogate saw this chap on an not too old bike and I thought that there was something wrong with it.
As we came to a major road junction he caught and passed us I realised what was wrong. He had no rear brake at all.
I thought he’s riding a Fixey ( fixed wheel) but no, as he had a gear setup on the back wheel. Nor was he wearing a helmet.
Asking for a hospital visit !