The Analogue says that Atlantis was "Minoan-civilization-destroying eruption at Santorini/Thera". The article conjectures that it wouldn't have needed to be passed down orally anyway, because Solon visited Egypt, a civilizaiton with writing that has persisted through the appropriate time period. If the dates and distances all somehow get multiplied by ten in some weird error on somone's part (and that could be Solon) then it matches reasonably well.
That Wikipedia artilce dismisses the idea that Santorini is Atlantis, but that statement isn't sourced and it seems weird to me to just waive of the idea that this eruption could be the source for the story of Atlantis. I'd be curious to know why that couldn't be, unless it's just that "it isn't enough like the mythical Atlantis," which seems like a silly argument for reasons I don't need to explain. I'd think it's inherently plausible that the giant volcanoe that destroys a Greek civilization is the source of a story about a giant volcanoe that destroys a Greek civilization, but what do I know.
As for whether an oral tradition can last 10,000 years, how about
I thought the idea that the San Andreas fault was likely to cause some horrible catastrophe was supposed to be more credible that the supervolcanoe thing, which I understand is supposed to be bunk, maybe it's just as ridiculous. I don't pretend to know anything about geology.